Prostate cancer Ludhiana

Overview

Prostate is responsible for the production of semen in males. Prostate cancer is a form of a cancer that starts in the prostate gland. Both Prostate cancer and BPH (Benign prostatic hyperplasia) can cause an enlarged prostate. But they only cause common symptoms, no other similarity exists between the both. BPH is not cancerous and fatal like prostate cancer. There is another condition called as ‘Prostatitis’ wherein the prostate becomes swollen, tender and inflamed which is also not cancerous as well as different from BPH.

Every case of prostate cancer is different. Fortunately, it is one of the most treatable cancer types if detected early.

Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include age (generally over 60), diet (people who consume animal fat) and family history.

Some of the common symptoms include trouble in urinating, more than usual urination, pain while urinating or ejaculation, blood in the urine or semen.

Regular screening helps in early detection of prostate cancer. Early detection can lead to successful treatment.

Risk Factors

  • Aging: Risk increases substantially after the age of 50
  • Family history
  • Inherited mutations: Studies have shown an elevated risk of prostate cancer among men with changes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 inherited genes
  • Diet: Increased consumption of red meat or high-fat dairy products have an increased risk for developing the cancer
  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • Inflammation of the prostate
  • Sexually transmitted infections
  • Vasectomy

Symptoms

  • Difficulty in starting urination
  • Weak or interrupted flow of urine
  • Frequent urination, most often in the night
  • Inability or difficulty in emptying the bladder
  • Pain or burning while urinating
  • Blood present in urine or semen
  • Constant pain in the back, hips or pelvis
  • Painful ejaculation

Diagnosis

Although symptoms may suggest that cancer is present, the use of diagnostic imaging, blood tests and biopsies can help confirm whether the cancer really exists. The following are tests that may be conducted in diagnosing of prostate cancer:

  • PSA test
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan
  • Transrectal ultrasound
  • Bone scan
  • ProstaScint scan

Treatment Options

Prostate cancer treatment plan is determined by taking gleason score, as well as many other factors into consideration. Treatment options may consist of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy or any combination of these treatments.

  • A surgical procedure called ‘radical prostatectomy’ may be an option where the surgeon remove partial or the entire prostate organ.
  • Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses anti-cancer drugs to kill or stop the growth of cancer cells.
  • Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy radiation beams to eliminate cancer cells or stop them from growing. Radiation therapy consists of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy or internal radiation therapy.
  • External beam is a treatment option that uses localized high energy radiation beams to eliminate cancer cells and keep them from growing.
  • Brachy therapy uses a radioactive substance, usually in the form of seeds which are placed directly into or near the cancer which helps to shrink the tumour.