Lung cancer Ludhiana

Overview

  • Lung cancer interferes with this vital process of inhaling and exhaling, which can make breathing very difficult.
  • Lung Cancer is caused by lung cells growing out of control. As the number of cells grow, they form into a tumor. There are many types of lung cancers.
  • Early symptoms of lung cancer may be a slight cough or shortness of breath, depending on which part of the lung is affected. As the cancer develops, these symptoms may become more severe or intense.
  • Some of the common symptoms include cough, chest pain, difficulty in breathing, tiresomeness, wheezing, change in speech, weight loss, loss of appetite and pneumonia or bronchitis that keeps coming back.
  • Smoking cigarettes is the leading cause of lung cancer. However, lung cancer in non-smokers has been rising in recent years. Other causes for lung cancer include radon, radiation, asbestos, and pollution.

Risk Factors

  • Tobacco smoke: Tobacco smoke is the leading cause of lung cancer. Smoke from cigarettes, pipes, or cigars released harmful substances that can damage lung cells when inhaled. The more a person is exposed to smoke,the greater the likelihood of developing lung cancer
  • Radon: Radon is a radioactive gas that you can not see, smell or taste. It forms in soil and rocks. People working in mines may be exposed to radon.Extended exposure to radon can damage lung cells
  • Asbestos and other substances: Exposure to asbestos, arsenic, chromium, nickel, soot, tar and other substances can cause lung cancer. The risk is highest for those with years of exposure
  • Air pollution
  • Family history
  • Personal history of lung cancer
  • Older age

Symptoms

  • A cough that does not go away or gets worse
  • Chest pain that is often worse with deep breathing, coughing, or laughing
  • Hoarseness
  • Weight loss and loss of appetite
  • Coughing up blood or rust-colored sputum
  • Shortness of breath
  • Feeling tired or weak
  • Infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia that don’t go away or keep coming back
  • New onset of wheezing
  • Horner syndrome
  • Superior vena cava syndrome
  • Paraneoplastic syndromes

Diagnosis

Although symptoms may suggest that cancer is present, the use of diagnostic imaging can help confirm whether the cancer really exists. The following are imaging tests that may be conducted in diagnosing lung cancer:

  • Chest x-ray
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan
  • Bone scan

Treatment Options

Treatment options may consist of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, other localized therapies or any combination of these treatments.

  • Surgery may consist of a pneumonectomy, lobectomy, or segmentectomy where all or part of the lung is removed. In some instances, the nearby lymph nodes may be removed for observation also.
  • Chemotherapy is a systemic therapy that uses anti-cancer drugs to kill or stop the growth of cancer cells
  • Radiation therapy consists of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy or internal radiation therapy.
  • External beam is a treatment option that uses localized high energy radiation beams to eliminate cancer cells and keep them from growing.
  • Brachytherapy uses a radioactive substance, usually in the form of seeds which are placed directly into or near the cancer which helps to shrink the tumor.
  • Other therapies can include radiofrequency ablation, photodynamic therapy, laser therapy, and stent placement.