Surgery: Uterine cancer surgery involves the removal of abnormal tissues from the uterus and surrounding tissues. It involves the removal of the uterus, the fallopian tubes, and the ovaries. When only the uterus is removed, the process is known as a hysterectomy. Salpingo-oophorectomy is the removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes. Women may undergo both procedures when uterine cancer is believed to spread to fallopian tubes and ovaries. The types of hysterectomy are total abdominal hysterectomy, radical hysterectomy, vaginal hysterectomy, and minimally invasive hysterectomy. The surgery may also include lymph node dissection if the cancer spreads to nearby lymph nodes.
Chemotherapy: It involves the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Depending upon the severity and response of patients, the oncologist may prescribe one or more drugs during treatment. The chemotherapy drugs may be given either orally or through injections. In addition, chemotherapy may be given after the surgery to kill the remaining cancerous cells. The cancer specialist may also prescribe chemotherapy before the surgery to shrink the tumor, which can be removed through surgery.
Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy kills cancer cells with the use of high-energy radiation, such as protons or X-rays. The oncologists may recommend radiation therapy after the surgery to minimize the risk of uterine cancer recurrence. Radiation therapy may also be given before the surgery to shrink the tumor. Radiation therapy can be administered by guiding radiation on the cancer cells from outside the body or placing a device containing radiation near or inside the tumor.
Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy modulates the immune system of the body and activates them to fight against cancer cells. Cancerous cells evade the immune system by blinding the immune system cells through certain processes. Immunotherapy interferes with this process and makes the cancer cells vulnerable to being attacked by the immune cells.
Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy is a type of cancer treatment that makes use of drugs to target specific genes and proteins that help cancer cells survive and grow. Patients with advanced endometrial cancer usually receive a combination of chemotherapy and targeted therapy.
Hormone therapy: Uterine cancer cells rely on hormones for their growth and development. Hormonal therapy reduces the level of hormones in the body, thereby causing the death of cancer cells.
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