Thyroid cancer affects the thyroid gland, which is responsible for producing hormones that help in controlling metabolism and calcium levels in the body. This type of cancer is more common in women than in men. About two thirds of thyroid cancers are diagnosed in people between the age of 20 and 55. However, it is important to know that Thyroid cancer is different from other thyroid conditions, such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. The most uncommon, cancers found in the thyroid are thyroid lymphomas, thyroid sarcomas, or other rare tumors (less than 4% only).
Thyroid cancer is caused by a number of environmental and genetic factors. Exposure to ionizing radiation plays a significant role. Rates of thyroid cancer increased following the Chernobyl, Fukushima, Kyshtym, and Windscale nuclear disasters. Genetic causes include family history of a group of disorders associated with tumors of the endocrine system.