Bladder Cancer Ludhiana

Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is cancer that begins in the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ in the pelvis that stores urine before it leaves the body.
The bladder wall is made of several layers. Most bladder cancers begin in a layer called the urothelium, which lines the inside of the ureter, bladder, urethra and parts of the kidneys. Cancer may also develop in other types of cells in the bladder.
Bladder cancer affects more men than women and is more common in those over the age of 65. The largest risk factor for developing bladder cancer is smoking.
Other risk factors include Family history, Genetic mutations, Exposure to chemicals, exposure to certain chemotherapy medications, Radiation to the pelvis, Exposure to arsenic, Aristolochic (a Chinese herb), Bladder infections etc.
The most common sign of bladder cancer is hematuria (blood in the urine). Other symptoms are the result of irritation to the bladder wall caused by the tumor.

Overview

A tumor that forms in the tissues of the urinary bladder is known as bladder cancer. The bladder is a hollow muscular organ located in the pelvis that collects and stores urine. Based on the affected cell type, the following are the various classifications for bladder cancer:

  • Transitional cell carcinomas is the most common cancer type. It originates in the cells that compose the inner lining of the bladder
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is cancer that forms in the thin, flat cells of the bladder
  • Adenocarcinoma is cancer that starts in cells that produce and secrete mucus and other fluids
  • Small cell carcinoma is cancer that starts in nerve-like cells referred to as neuroendocrine cells
    In India, bladder cancer is the most common urological cancer being the fifth most prevalent cancer among men.

Risk Factors

  • Smoking
  • Exposure to workplace chemicals such as benzidine and beta-naphthylamine typically found in the dye industry
  • Aging: Risk increases after 55 years of age
  • Gender: More common among men than women
  • Chronic bladder irritation or infection such as urinary infections, kidney and bladder stones
  • Personal history of bladder cancer
  • Bladder birth defects
  • Family history
  • Arsenic traces in drinking water
  • Low fluid consumption

Symptoms

  • Blood in urine
  • Increased urge to empty the bladder
  • Increased frequency in urination
  • Increased urge to empty the bladder without results
  • Needing to strain or bear down when emptying the bladder
  • Pain when emptying the bladder
  • Having lower back pain

Diagnosis

Although symptoms may suggest that cancer is present, the use of diagnostic imaging, biopsies and other tests can help confirm whether the cancer really exists. The following are tests that may be conducted in diagnosing and staging bladder cancer:

  • Urine cytology
  • Bladder biopsy (Cystoscopic guided)
  • Ultrasound
  • Computed Tomography (CT) scan
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan
  • Chest X-ray
  • Bone scan

Treatment Options

Treatment options may consist of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, biological therapy or any combination of these treatments.

  • In a surgical process, the surgeon may remove part of or the entire bladder and possibly surrounding tissues, lymph nodes and organs which may be affected
  • Chemotherapy may be used. Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses anti-cancer drugs to kill or stop the growth of cancer cells
  • Radiation is another option for treatment that uses high-energy radiation beams to eliminate cancer cells or stop them from growing. Radiation therapy consists of external beam radiotherapy

External beam radiation uses localized high energy radiation beams to eliminate cancer cells and keep them from growing

Radiotherapy is preferred if patient is willing for bladder preservation (organ preservation).

Biological therapy is sometimes used, too. This treatment is given via a solution containing a weakened bacterium which is introduced to the affected area.The bacteria strain works with the immune system to kill the cancer cells