Bladder cancer is cancer that begins in the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ in the pelvis that stores urine before it leaves the body.
The bladder wall is made of several layers. Most bladder cancers begin in a layer called the urothelium, which lines the inside of the ureter, bladder, urethra and parts of the kidneys. Cancer may also develop in other types of cells in the bladder.
Bladder cancer affects more men than women and is more common in those over the age of 65. The largest risk factor for developing bladder cancer is smoking.
Other risk factors include Family history, Genetic mutations, Exposure to chemicals, exposure to certain chemotherapy medications, Radiation to the pelvis, Exposure to arsenic, Aristolochic (a Chinese herb), Bladder infections etc.
The most common sign of bladder cancer is hematuria (blood in the urine). Other symptoms are the result of irritation to the bladder wall caused by the tumor.
A tumor that forms in the tissues of the urinary bladder is known as bladder cancer. The bladder is a hollow muscular organ located in the pelvis that collects and stores urine. Based on the affected cell type, the following are the various classifications for bladder cancer:
Although symptoms may suggest that cancer is present, the use of diagnostic imaging, biopsies and other tests can help confirm whether the cancer really exists. The following are tests that may be conducted in diagnosing and staging bladder cancer:
Treatment options may consist of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, biological therapy or any combination of these treatments.
External beam radiation uses localized high energy radiation beams to eliminate cancer cells and keep them from growing
Radiotherapy is preferred if patient is willing for bladder preservation (organ preservation).
Biological therapy is sometimes used, too. This treatment is given via a solution containing a weakened bacterium which is introduced to the affected area.The bacteria strain works with the immune system to kill the cancer cells